Participation Statistics

Source: BikesBelong

Bikes Belong Statistics

Bikes Belong Statistics

This section contains:

The basics [back to top]

  • There is an average of 1.90 vehicles and 0.86 adult-size bicycles per U.S. household.

Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2003

Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey

  • During an average week, 30% of the German population use a bicycle for transportation. The average cyclist uses a bicycle three days a week for about 30% of their trips.

Kuhnimhof, T., et al., 2011

Multimodal travel choices of bicyclists: Multiday analysis of bicycle use in Germany, Transportation Research Record, 2190/2010, 19-27

  • More than 200,000 people bike every day in New York City. Cycling has increased 26% between 2008 and 2009.

Hughes, T., 2010

“City planners track cyclists, pedestrians to measure trail needs,” USAToday.com, 11 May 2010

  • Sixty percent of people in England who are able to ride a bike are deterred from cycling because they feel it’s unsafe to cycle on roads. More than half said they would start riding or ride more often if there were more cycle paths.

Thornton, A., et al., 2010

Climate Change and Transport Choices, Department of Transport

  • The average American bikes or walks for an average of 20 minutes for exercise and 14 minutes for other purposes every day.

U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010

NHTS Brief: Active Travel, December 2010

  • Approximately one-quarter of U.S. adults use a biking, walking, or hiking trail at least once per week.

Librett, J., et al., 2006

Characteristics of physical activity levels among trail users in a U.S. national sample, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 31, 399-405

  • According to a regular survey of Copenhagen residents:
    • 84% have access to a bicycle and 68% cycle at least once a week
    • 96% of school children have a bicycle, and 55% cycle to school on a regular basis
    • More than 1 in 6 families with children own a cargo bike or trailer
    • 55% cycle because it’s faster than other modes; only 9% ride due to environmental/climate concerns
    • Just 5% of city cyclists say they feel very unsafe

Copenhagen Traffic Department

Copenhagen City of Cyclists: Bicycle Account 2010

  • A survey of New York City bicyclists found:
    • The majority of cyclists prefer riding on off-street bike facilities to on-street (76%)
    • The most common reasons non-commuting cyclists don’t bike commute to work are driver behavior/traffic and lack of safe storage at work
    • The most common reasons people bike commute are because it is healthy/good exercise and it is environmentally friendly
    • The average bike commute takes 35 minutes

New York City Department of City Planning, 2007

The New York City Bicycle Survey, May 2007

  • Less than 2% of Americans cycle daily, and less than 1% achieve 30 minutes of physical activity on any given day.

Pucher, J., et al., 2011

Walking and cycling in the United States, 2001-2009: Evidence from the National Household Travel Surveys, American Journal of Public Health, Supplement 1, Vol 101, No S1

  • Trips for recreation, exercise, and sports accounted for 49% of bike trips in 2009. Between 2001 and 2009, the share of all bike trips made for utilitarian reasons increased from 43% to 51%.

Pucher, J., et al., 2011

Walking and cycling in the United States, 2001-2009: Evidence from the National Household Travel Surveys, American Journal of Public Health, Supplement 1, Vol 101, No S1

  • Nearly 60% of all bike trips are 1 mile or less.

U.S. Department of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration, 2009

National Household Travel Survey

  • The number of Americans who ride bicycles is greater than all those who ski, golf, and play tennis combined.

National Sporting Goods Association, 2007

2007 Participation – Ranked by Total Participation

  • The average bicycle commuter makes eight one-way trips to work per week.

Moritz, W., 1997

Survey of North American bicycle commuters: Design and aggregate results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1578, 91-101

  • Why do people commute by bicycle? According to a survey of 2,400 cyclists:
    • 95% ride for health and fitness
    • 82% do it for the environment
    • 52% bike to avoid congestion
    • 46% ride to save money on gasoline
    • 34% want to avoid car-parking costs and availability

Moritz, W., 1997

Survey of North American bicycle commuters: Design and aggregate results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1578, 91-101

  • The average bicycle commute is 7.5 miles each way and takes 30.7 minutes.

Moritz, W., 1997

Survey of North American bicycle commuters: Design and aggregate results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1578, 91-101

  • 71% of Americans say they would like to bicycle more than they do now.

Royal, D., and D. Miller-Steiger, 2008

National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

  • Estimations of the number of Americans who ride bicycles trend around 15% (OIA) to 17% (SGMA). In general:
    • 1% of adults ride a bicycle on a given day
    • 5.3% ride on a given week
    • 16% ride on a given month
    • 29% ride in the summer
    • 40% ride in a year
    • 50% sometimes ride a bicycle, although not necessarily in a given year

Outdoor Industry Foundation, 2009; Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association, 2009; Barnes, G., and K. Krizek, 2005

Estimating Bicycling Demand, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1939, 45-51

  • 54% of bicycle commuters commute by bike year-round.

Moritz, W., 1997

Survey of North American bicycle commuters: Design and aggregate results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1578, 91-101

  • During the summer of 2002, an estimated 2.5 billion bicycling trips were made by people 16 and older in the U.S.

Royal, D., and D. Miller-Steiger, 2008

National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

  • The #1 reason given for not bicycling is a lack of access to a bicycle.

Royal, D., and D. Miller-Steiger, 2008

National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

  • Less than half (46%) of Americans 16 and older have regular access to a bicycle.

Royal, D., and D. Miller-Steiger, 2008

National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

  • 40% of all trips are 2 miles or less.

U.S. Department of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration, 2009

National Household Travel Survey

  • In 2009, 1% of all U.S. trips were made by bicycle, an increase of 25% from 2001.

U.S. Department of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration, 2009

National Household Travel Survey

  • Bicycling is the second most popular outdoor activity in America by frequency of participation. In 2010, Americans ages 6 and older went on 2.44 billion bicycling outings, averaging 58 outings per bicyclist.

Outdoor Foundation, 2011

Outdoor Recreation Participation Report 2011

  • 0.55% of American workers use a bike as their main vehicle for commuting.

U.S. Census Bureau, 2010

American Community Survey, 2009

  • About 10 percent of Americans say they ride primarily for transportation.

Mahoney, S., 2009

“Bike Industry Poised for a Breakthrough,” MediaPost News, August 7, 2009

  • The number of Americans who commuted to work primarily by bike in 2008 increased 14 percent from 2007, 36 percent since 2005, and 43 percent since 2000. For interactive spreadsheets of bike commute share by city or state, visit the League of American Bicyclists.

U.S. Census Bureau, 2009

2008 American Community Survey

  • On average, larger increases in government spending on bike and pedestrian infrastructure are associated with larger increases in the number of bike commuters.

Flusche, D., 2009

American Community Survey Bicycle Community Trends, 2000 to 2008, League of American Bicyclists

  • A review of 139 studies concluded that substantial increases in bicycling require an integrated package of numerous interventions, including bike-specific infrastructure and pro-bicycle programs, as well as supportive land use planning and restrictions on automobile use.

Pucher, J., et al., 2009

“Infrastructure, programs and policies to increase bicycling: An international review,” prepared for the Active Living Research Program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and tentatively scheduled for publication in Preventive Medicine, Feb. 2010

  • Availability of a bicycle in a household is the strongest single predictor of bicycling for transportation.

Cervero, et al., 2009

in Pucher, J., et al., 2009, “International Review of Cycling Interventions,” Preventive Medicine

  • More than 85% of Amsterdam residents rode their bikes at least once a week in 2003.

City of Amsterdam, 2003

in “Cycling to sustainability in Amsterdam,” Buehler, R., and J. Pucher, Sustain, 21, Fall/Winter 2010

Demographics [back to top]

  • New immigrants to the U.S. are more likely to travel by bicycle than native-born Americans. 

Smart, M., 2010

US immigrants and biking: Two-wheeled in Autopia, Transport Policy, in press

  • In the U.S., 24% of all bicycle trips are made by women and 76% are made by men.

U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010

2009 National Household Travel Survey

  • A census of cyclists in Calgary, Canada found that 75% of cyclists commuting downtown were male. Women were more likely than men to be possible or occasional cyclists, while men were more likely than women to be regular cyclists. Women were more concerned about safety, being able to carry daily items, and the need to fix their hair.

Twaddle, H., et al., 2011

Latent bicycle commuting demand and effects of gender on commuter cycling and accident rates, Transportation Research Record, 2190/2010, 28-36

  • Over the last 25 years, cycling among the higher income brackets of Amsterdam has more than doubled (from 15% to 33%). Over the same period, bicycle ownership increased from 63% to 73% among all residents.

Fietsberaad, 2011

“Higher income brackets cycle as well in Amsterdam” 

  • Western US states have the highest bicycling rates, while southern states have extremely low levels of bicycling.

Pucher, J., et al., 2011

Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies, Transportation Research A, 45, in press

  • Almost all of the growth in bicycling in the U.S. over the past two decades has been among men between 25-64 years old.

Pucher, J., et al., 2011

Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies, Transportation Research A, 45, in press

  • Bicycling rates don’t very much by income level, but bicycling purposes do. Low-income persons bike mainly for utilitarian purposes, and high-income persons bike more for recreation and exercise.

Pucher, J., et al., 2011

Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies, Transportation Research A, 45, in press

  • Bicycling is becoming more diverse. Between 2001 and 2009, cycling rates rose fastest among African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans. Those three groups also account for a growing share of all bike trips, rising from 16% in 2001 to 21% in 2009.

Pucher, J., et al., 2011

Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies, Transportation Research A, 45, in press

  • A survey of casual bike share users in Washington, D.C. found that 75% were traveling in groups of two or more, and that 60% did not identify themselves as “cyclists”.

Buehler, R., et al., 2012

Virginia Tech Capital Bikeshare study, A closer look at casual users and operations

  • Children from low-income and minority households, particularly blacks and Hispanics, are more likely to bike or walk to school than whites or higher-income students.

McDonald, N., 2008

Critical factors for active transportation to school among low-income and minority students: Evidence from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34, 341-344

  • The average North American bicycle commuter is a 39-year-old male professional with a household income in excess of $45,000 who rides 10.6 months per year.

Moritz, W., 1997

Survey of North American bicycle commuters: Design and aggregate results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1578, 91-101

  • Bicycling is highest among whites and Hispanics (0.9% of all trips are taken by bike). For whites, bicycles are mostly used for recreation, while for Hispanics, they are typically used to reach the workplace.

Pucher, J., and J. Renne, 2003

Socioeconomics of Urban Travel: Evidence from the 2001 NHTS, Transportation Quarterly, 57, 49-77

  • In northern Europe there are no significant differences in cycling rates among income classes or sexes.

Pucher, J., and R. Buehler, 2008

Cycling for everyone: Lessons from Europe, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2074, 58-65

  • U.S. cyclists who bike frequently have a median income of almost $60,000.

SRDS, 2005

The Lifestyle Market Analyst

  • According to a 2006 survey by the Outdoor Industry Foundation, cycling participants are:
    • 58% male / 42% female
    • 29% ages 16 to 24 / 21% ages 25 to 34 / 23% ages 35 to 44 / 27% ages 45
    • 53% married / 47% unmarried
    • 32% household income <$40,000 / 40% $40,000-$79,000 / 28% $80,000

Outdoors Foundation, 2006

Active Outdoor Recreation Participation Study 8th Edition

  • 87% of U.S. competitive cyclists are male, and 12% are female. Most (32%) are 35-44 years old and are from California (17%).

USA Cycling, 2009

Active member demographics

  • In the U.S., men’s cycling trips surpass women’s by at least 2:1. In the Netherlands, 55% of riders are women. In Germany, 49% of bike trips are made by women.

Baker, L. 2009

“How to get more bicyclists on the road: To boost urban bicycling, figure out what women want,” Scientific American Magazine, October 16, 2009

  • Residents of the most socioeconomically advantaged neighborhoods are more likely to bicycle in leisure time but less likely to cycle for transportation than those from the most disadvantaged neighborhoods.

Van Lenthe et al., 2005

in Krizek, K., et al., Walking and Cycling International Literature Review, Victoria Department of Transportation

  • Access to a bicycle rises with household income. According to a government survey of nearly 10,000 Americans:
    • just 29% of those with household incomes less than $15,000 had regular access to a bicycle
    • 47% with incomes $30,000-$49,000 had access
    • 65% with incomes $75,000 or more had access.

Royal, D., and D. Miller-Steiger, 2008

National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

Recent trends [back to top]

  • In San Jose, California, bicycling to work increased 200% between 2006 and 2008. A study of the city’s bike trail system found that:
    • Use has increased by double-digits every year from 2006 to 2008
    • More than 50% of trail users are commuting to and from work
    • Trail users report a desire to bike more with further trail development

Zsutty, Y., 2010

“The trail down the street: San Jose plans for trails within three miles of all residents,” RTC TrailBlog

  • Commuter bike traffic increased 125% between 2007 and 2010 in Knoxville, Tennesee.

Hunt, N., 2010

“Commuting by bike in Knox up by 125 percent,” knoxnews.com, 5 June, 2010

  • Between 1970 and 2010, the percentage of students traveling by bicycle on the University of California at Santa Barbara increased from 38% to 52%. The share of faculty and staff choosing bikes also increased, from 4% to 11%.

Santa Barbara Bicycle Coalition, 2010

“Surprises in new UCSB travel survey data,” Quick Release, July 2010

  • After buffered bike lanes were installed on Philadelphia’s Spruce and Pine streets, bike traffic increased 95% and the number of bicyclists riding on the sidewalks decreased by up to 75%

Bicycle Coalition of Greater Philadelphia, 2010

“Bicycle usage up 95% on Spruce and Pine bike lanes,” 10 December 2009

  • A survey of Portland, Oregon businesses found that bicycling is the fastest-growing mode of transport for downtown employees’ work commutes.

Maus, J., 2010

“Portland Business Alliance reports sharp increase in downtown bike commuters,” Bikeportland.org, October 4, 2010

  • In 2009, the number of frequent bicycle commuters remained steady from 2008, despite the fall in gas prices.

American Community Survey in Flusche, D., 2010

American Community Survey in “Bicycling beats the odds — National bike commuter rate holds steady,” League of American Bicyclists Blog, September 28, 2010

  • Between 2008 and 2010, participation in road, mountain, and BMX bicycling grew from 41.5 to 42.3 million Americans.

Outdoor Foundation, 2011

2011 Outdoor Recreation Participation Report

  • In Redding, CA, bicycle traffic increased 80% between 2009 and 2010.

Shasta County Health & Human Services Agency, 2010, in Shigley, P., 2010

“Survey finds big bicycle ridership increase,” anewscafe.com, 16 November 2010

  • Bicycling in Portland, OR increased 8% between 2009 and 2010.

Portland Bureau of Transportation, 2010

Portland Bicycle Count Report 2010

  • More than 200,000 people bike every day in New York City. Cycling has increased 26% between 2008 and 2009.

Hughes, T., 2010

“City planners track cyclists, pedestrians to measure trail needs,” USAToday.com, 11 May 2010

  • From 2000 to 2009, bike crashes in Minneapolis, MN dropped 20%, while the number of city bicyclists increased 174% between 2003 and 2008.

City of Minneapolis, 2010, in Flusche, D., 2011

“Ridership up, crashes down: ‘Safety in Numbers’ in Minneapolis,” BikeLeague.org blog, 9 February 2011

  • Londoners using the Barclays bike share program cycled 10,000,000 km, the equivalent of cycling to the moon and back 13 times, in its first six months of operation.

Transport for London, 2011

“Barclays Cycle Hire customers cycle to the moon and back 13 times in the first six months,” 1 February 2011

  • In Minneapolis, bicycling increased 33% from 2007-2010 

Bike Walk Twin Cities, 2011

“March 2011: Bicycling is up 33% from 2007-2010”

  • Average peak hour bicycling rates in Marin, CA increased 46% on weekdays between 2007 and 2010, and 85% on weekends.

Bernstein-Wax, J., 2011

“Study: More people walking, biking in Marin,” Marin Independent Journal, 3 April 2011

  • In 2008, the number of miles Americans drove declined by three percent. In the same year, traffic congestion dropped 30 percent.

Carol, 2009

The Tipping Point, CEOs for Cities blog, 3 March 2009

  • During the past two decades, cycling has increased in the United States. The number of bike commuters rose by 64% from 1990 to 2009.

Pucher, J., et al., 2011

Analysis of bicycling trends and policies in large North American cities: Lessons for New York

  • Bicycling for transportation is making up a growing share of all bicycling, increasing from 43% of all bike trips in 2001 to 54% in 2009. While bicycling for recreation is a declining share of all trips, it still has a higher bike mode share than other trip purposes.

Pucher, J., et al., 2011

Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies, Transportation Research A, 45, in press

  • Bicycling is growing the fastest in large cities like Chicago, Minneapolis, New York, San Francisco, and Portland, OR—at least doubling since 1990. These cities have seen a boom in bicycling because they have consciously worked to grow bicycling. Cities, like Portland, that have implemented a comprehensive range of efforts, including infrastructure, programs, and policies to promote cycling are seeing the best results; in Portland, cycling levels grew six-fold.

Pucher, J., et al., 2011

Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies, Transportation Research A, 45, in press

  • In large US cities where bicycling is growing, bicycling growth is highly concentrated in central cities, but it is still very low in most suburbs.

Pucher, J., et al., 2011

Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies, Transportation Research A, 45, in press

  • Bicycling is becoming more diverse. Between 2001 and 2009, cycling rates rose fastest among African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans. Those three groups also account for a growing share of all bike trips, rising from 16% in 2001 to 21% in 2009.

Pucher, J., et al., 2011

Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies, Transportation Research A, 45, in press

  • Between 2006 and 2011, only 12 sports had a positive trend in increased participation. Bicycling is one of them (up 11.8%)

National Sporting Goods Association, 2011

“NSGA Releases 2010 Participation Report: Basketball, Baseball Lead Growth for Team Sports”

  • Trips for recreation, exercise, and sports accounted for 49% of bike trips in 2009. Between 2001 and 2009, the share of all bike trips made for utilitarian reasons increased from 43% to 51%.

Pucher, J., et al., 2011

Walking and cycling in the United States, 2001-2009: Evidence from the National Household Travel Surveys, American Journal of Public Health, Supplement 1, Vol 101, No S1

  • Bicycling in New York City increased 8% between 2010 and 2011, 102% since 2007, and 289% compared to 2001. During the same time, safety increased for all road users.

New York City Department of Transportation, 2011

“NYC DOT Announces Commuter Biking has Doubled in the Last Four Years…”

  • In Los Angeles, bicycling increased 32% between 2009 and 2011.

Los Angeles County Bicycle Coalition

“Results are in: Cycling is on the rise in Los Angeles!”

  • In Salt Lake City, bicycling increased 27 percent from 2010 to 2011, thanks in part to a 50-mile bikeway expansion.

Office of the Mayor, Salt Lake City, 2011

“Second Annual Bike Count Shows Big Jump in Cyclists,” Office of the Mayor, 1 November 2011

  • Minneapolis-St. Paul saw a 30% increase in participation in June Bike Walk Week every year beween 2009 and 2011.

Bike Walk Twin Cities in Bike.Walk.Move.org, 2011

Infographic highlights biking, walking in Twin Cities, November 1, 2011

  • Between 2003 and 2007, bike commuting in Minneapolis increased 100%. Since 2000, bike crashes have declined 20% on average every year.

Bike Walk Twin Cities in Bike.Walk.Move.org, 2011

Infographic highlights biking, walking in Twin Cities, November 1, 2011

  • After the BIXI bike sharing system was implemented in Montreal, individuals who lived within 1km of a station were more likely to cycle for transportation.

Fuller, D., et al., 2011

Evaluating the impact of implementing a public bike share program on utilitarian cycling: The case of BIXI in Montreal, Canada, 2011 Active Living Research Annual Conference presentation abstract

  • From 2009-2010, bike commuting increased 1% in the 70 largest U.S. cities. From 2000-2010, it increased 63% in those cities.

U.S. Census Bureau, League of American Bicyclists, 2011

2010 American Community Survey

  • Between 2009 and 2010, BMX riding participation grew 31% in the U.S.

Sporting Goods Manufacturing Association, 2011

SGMA Participation Topline Report

  • Bicycling in Minneapolis, Minnesota increased 47% from 2007-2011. From 2010-2011, the city expanded its on-street bikeway network by 75%.

City of Minneapolis Public Works Department, 2012

2011 City of Minneapolis Bicycling Account

  • Worldwide sales of electric bicycles are predicted to reach 30 million units in 2012 and 51 million units and $13.2 billion in revenue by 2018.

Pike Research, 2012

“Annual Sales of Electric Bikes will Surpass 47 Million by 2018, Forecasts Pike Research”

  • A poll of New York City residents found that 60% support bike lanes, 64% see more New Yorkers biking in the next five years, and 76% want to increase or maintain the number of bike lanes.

Lisberg, A., 2012

“Bike lanes will be old news for new mayor, survey says,” City & State, 13 March 2012

  • From 2006-2011, bicycling in San Francisco increased 71 percent. From 2010-2011, it increased 7 percent, making up 3.5 % of all trips in the city. The greatest growth in bicycling came on Market Street, which has green, protected bikeways. On Market Street, bicycling increased 115% from 2006, and 43% from 2010.

San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, 2012

2011 Bicycle Count Report

  • Bicycling in Portland, Oregon increased 6.4% between 2010 and 2011. Overall, bike traffic is up 219% from 2001.

Portland Bureau of Transportation, 2012

2011 Bicycle Counts Report

  • A survey of residents near Washington, D.C.’s 16th Street NW cycletrack revealed that:
    • 82% agree that Washington, D.C. should be investing in projects that encourage more people to ride bicycles for transportation
    • 89% agree that the city should be investing in projects that improve the safety of bicycling
    • 82% agree that bicycling is an important part of the Washington transportation system

    On D.C,’s Pennsylvania Avenue cycletrack:

    • Bicycle volumes increased 200% after the facilities were installed
    • 90% of users say they feel safer bicycling on Pennsylvania Ave because of the new lanes
    • Nearly 3 in 4 residents support the bike lanes and believe them to be a valuable asset to the neighborhood

    Residents around the 15th Street cycletrack say:

    • They support the 15th Street cycletrack (84%)
    • The cycletrack on 15th Street is a valuable asset to the neighborhood (83%)

District Department of Transportation, 2012

District Department of Transportation Bicycle Facility Evaluation

  • Between 2008 and 2009, participation in cyclocross races increased 15% in Colorado.

American Cycling Association, 20010

in “ACA Racer Participation up in 09,” K. Thompson, 6 January 2010, 303Cycling.com

  • In 2009, the number of bicycle trips in Portland, Oregon decreased 5% from 2008. However, the number of trips made by motorists and transit riders also decreased during the same time period.

Portland Bureau of Transportation, 2009

Portland Bicycle Count Report 2009

  • In 2009 15.9% of all trips in Boulder, CO were made by bike, an increase from 13.6% in 2006 and 9.1% in 1990.

City of Boulder, 2010

Modal Shift in the Boulder Valley

  • In the Washington, D.C., region, an increasing number of daily trips are made for reasons other than commuting to work. Today, one-fifth of all daily trips are for commuting to work, down from one-quarter in 1994 and one-third in 1968. Non-commute trips also tend to be shorter than the median commute, averaging less than four miles compared to 9.3 miles.

National Capital Transportation Planning Board Survey, 2009

in “Drivers taking more trips beyond daily commute,” Weir, K., Washington Examiner, April 13, 2009

  • A fall 2008 study estimated that 12% of the British workforce, around 3.3 million people, have recently started cycling to work in order to save money.
  • According to a summer 2008 Bikes Belong survey of over 100 bicycle retailers, compared to 2007:
    • 73% said they are selling more transportation-related bikes
    • 84% said they are selling more transportation-related accessories
    • 88% said they are selling more transportation-related service
    • 95% of shops said customers cited high gas prices as a reason for their transportation-related purchases
    • 80% of retailers said gas prices were helping them sell more bikes for transportation. – 86% thought accessory sales were getting a boost
    • 89% said they were selling more service because of high gas price

Bikes Belong, 2008

Gas Prices Survey

  • In 2008, helmet use and female cyclists reached all-time highs in Portland, Ore. 80% of recorded cyclists wore helmets, and 32% of all cyclists were female.

City of Portland Office of Transportation, 2008

Portland Bicycle Counts 2008

  • In 2008, total vehicle miles traveled in the U.S. declined by 3 percent. During the same time, traffic congestion on major urban U.S. roads decreased 30 percent. Ninety-nine of the 100 largest U.S. cities experienced decreases in congestion.

INRIX, 2009; CEOs for Cities, 2009

“INRIX National Traffic Scorecard reveals startling 30 percent decrease in traffic congestion in 2008”; “The Tipping Point,” CEOs for Cities Blog, 3 March 2009

  • In San Francisco the number of cyclists increased 9% from 2008 to 2009 and 53% from 2006.

San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, 2009

2009 Bicycle Counts Report

  • In Pittsburgh the number of bicycle commuters increased 38% between 2006 and 2007.

American Community Survey

in “Nationwide commuting trends, Pittsburgh increases rank in cycling,” September 26, 2008, Bike Pittsburgh Blog

  • In Minneapolis the number of bicycle commuters increased 49% between 2006 and 2007.

American Community Survey

in “Bike-to-work up 50 percent in 2007,” September 29, 2008, D. Thomas, Minneapolis Downtown Journal

  • Colorado’s American Cycling Association saw a 23% increase in the number of cyclocross riders from 2007 to 2008, and an overall rider increase of 3.4%.

Thompson, K., 2008

“ACA is showing strong increase in CX competitors”, 303Cycling.com

  • 2008 participation in Oregon’s Cross Crusade race series grew 25% from 2007, with an average of 1,045 participants per race.

BikePortland.org, 2008

“Cross Crusade participation up 25% in 2008”

  • In 2008, the number of licensed bicycle racers, events, and clubs grew for the sixth consecutive year. Since 2002, the number of licensed racers has grown 48%.

VeloNews, 2008

“Bike racing is growing in the U.S., USAC says”

  • As of 2008, in some Portland neighborhoods nearly 1/3 of residents use a bicycle as their primary or secondary mode to get to work.

Portland City Auditor, 2008

Resident Survey Results

  • Between 2005 and 2008, bicycling increased 104% in Philadelphia.

Bicycle Coalition of Greater Philadelphia, 2008

Double Dutch: Bicycling Jumps in Philadelphia

  • In New York City commuter cycling grew 26% between 2008 and 2009 and 45% since 2007. Cycling levels have more than doubled since 2002, and the number of cyclists crossing the Williamsburg Bridge quadrupled between 2000 and 2009. Since 2007, 200 miles of new bicycle routes have been added to the city’s on-street bicycle network. Between 2008 and 2009, cyclist fatalities dropped 54%.

New York City Department of Transportation, 2010

Mayor Bloomberg, Transportation Commissioner Sadik-Khan Announce All-Time Record Year for Traffic Safety

  • Between 2005 and 2009, the number of bicyclists in Santa Barbara, CA, increased by 16%.

Santa Barbara Bicycle Coalition, 2009

“Bicycling jumps 16% in Santa Barbara,” Quick Release

  • According to one study, U.S. bicycling participation increased more than 11% between 2007 and 2008.

National Sporting Goods Association, 2009

2008 Participation

  • A 2008 poll by Coldwell Banker found that 78% of real estate agents say their clients want to live in an area that helps reduce gasoline costs.

Coldwell Banker, 2008

“The Benefits of Complete Streets 10: Complete streets lower transportation costs”

  • In 2009, bicycling participation increased in Minnesota while bicycle crashes and injuries decreased. In Minneapolis, the Midtown Greenway saw a 24% increase in bike riders during the first 4 months of 2009 compared to 2008. Ridership from March-December 2008 was up 32% over the same period in 2007.

McAuliffe, B., 2009

“There’s safety in numbers for those on bikes,” Star Tribune, July 23, 2009

  • More than one-fifth (21%) of Americans say they have changed the way they commute to work because of the recession.

IBM Corporation, 2009

The Commuter’s Challenge: The impact of traffic congestion in the U.S., 2009 Commuter Pain Survey

  • In 2007, the number of miles Americans drove dropped for the first time since 1980.

Puentes, R., and A. Tomer, 2008

The Road…Less Traveled: An analysis of vehicle miles traveled trends in the U.S., Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings

  • From 1995 to 2005, China’s bike fleet declined by 35 percent (from 670 million to 435 million bikes), while private car ownership more than doubled (from 4.2 million to 8.9 million.)

Roney, J., 2008

Bicycles Pedaling into the Spotlight, Earth Policy Insititute

  • In 2008, the number of miles driven in America dropped 3.6% and highway fatalities dropped 9 percent, the lowest fatality level in 50 years.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2009

in “Road Deaths nationwide fell Sharply in 2008,” A. Goodnough, The New York Times, April 7, 2009

  • The proportion of workers who drove to work alone decreased slightly between 2007 and 2008, from 76.1% to 75.5%.

American Community Survey, 2009

in Roberts, S., “Census Data Show Recession-Driven Changes,” The New York Times, September 22, 2009

  • In downtown Boulder, CO, bicycle ridership has increased 14 percent between 2008 and 2009 and 46 percent since 2007.

Downtown Boulder Bicycle Count

in “Boulder bike count finds parking shortage,” Urie, H., Boulder Daily Camera, October 26, 2009

  • 10 percent of Boulder, CO residents normally bike to work, nearly 20 times the national average. Since 2000, the number of residents driving alone to work decreased from 61 to 54 percent. During the same time, the national drive-alone work-trip mode share increased 5.1 percent.

City of Boulder Transportation Staff, 2009

Journey to Work in the City of Boulder: Travel Data Update: October 2009

  • According to USA Cycling, Lance Armstrong’s return to professional bike racing has had a direct impact on the number of U.S. registered bike racers in 2009.

Robbins, K., 2009

“Lance Armstrong ignites USA Cycling growth,” Cyclingnews, November 11, 2009

  • Between 2007 and 2008, the number of USA Cycling-sanctioned bicycling events increased 2.5% to 2,535 events. The number of clubs increased 3.4% to 2,120, and the number of licensees increased 2.8% to 63,273.

USA Cycling, 2009

USA Cycling Annual Report 2008

  • The number of trips made by bicycle in the U.S. more than doubled from 1.7 billion in 2001 to 4 billion in 2009.

U.S. Department of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration, 2009

National Household Travel Survey

  • In Marin County, CA, bike commuting increased 66% while bicycle crashes declined 34% from 1998 to 2008.

Marin County Bicycle Coalition, 2008

MCBC Weekly Bulletin for April 3, 2008

  • Between 2007 and 2008, overall bicycle use in Portland, Oregon increased 28%.

City of Portland Office of Transportation, 2008

Portland Bicycle Counts 2008

  • In Portland, OR, 2008 total traffic fatalities were the lowest in recorded history, with only 20 total fatalities, none of them cyclists. 2008 car, pedestrian, and cyclist fatalities were all at all-time lows.

Ciy of Portland, 2009

2008 Fatality Summary

  • In a summer 2008 AARP survey, 15% of older adults said they had ridden a bicycle more frequently since gas prices had risen. Yet only 4 in 10 said they thought their neighborhood had adequate bicycle accommodations.

Skufca, L., 2008

Is the cost of gas leading Americans to use alternative transportaion?, AARP

Interesting facts [back to top]

  • Only 8% of U.S. households don’t have a vehicle available for regular use.

Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2003

Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey

  • Americans make an average of 4 trips a day, totaling 40 miles on average.

Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2003

Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey

  • Fifteen percent of all trips are made for commuting to work.

Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2003

Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey

  • Americans drive 55 minutes per day on average.

Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2003

Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey

  • A UK study asked the general public about their opinions of cycling. Respondents said:
    • 65% thought bike riding is “normal”
    • 7% thought cyclists were “strange”
    • 69% believed that cyclists should be taken seriously
    • 43% wished they were cycling when they were stuck in traffic
    • 50% disagreed with the statement that “Roads are meant for cars not bikes”
    • 6% cycled at least once a week
    • 28% cycled occasionally
    • Just over half owned a bicycle

Pidd, H., 2010

“Cyclists! The public thinks you’re cool and normal,” Guardian.co.uk Bike Blog

  • There is little correlation between population density and cycling rate.

Hembrow, D., 2011

“Population density vs. cycling rate for a range of cities,” A View from the Cycle Path, 28 February 2011

  • According to a regular survey of Copenhagen residents:
    • 84% have access to a bicycle and 68% cycle at least once a week
    • 96% of school children have a bicycle, and 55% cycle to school on a regular basis
    • More than 1 in 6 families with children own a cargo bike or trailer
    • 55% cycle because it’s faster than other modes; only 9% ride due to environmental/climate concerns
    • Just 5% of city cyclists say they feel very unsafe

Copenhagen Traffic Department

Copenhagen City of Cyclists: Bicycle Account 2010

  • A survey of cyclists from Oregon and Southwest Washington found that 89% own at least one automobile.

Inavero Institute for Service Research, 2009

Bicycling perceptions and experiences in Oregon and Southwest Washington

  • Bike and ride trips account for 3% of all public transport trips.

Pucher, J., et al., 2011

Walking and cycling in the United States, 2001-2009: Evidence from the National Household Travel Surveys, American Journal of Public Health, Supplement 1, Vol 101, No S1

  • Eighty-eight percent of bicyclists participate in more than one outdoor activity.

Outdoor Industry Association, 2011

Outdoor Recreation Participation Report 2011

  • Less than one-third of working Americans commute five miles or less one-way.

Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2003

From home to work, the average commute is 26.4 miles, OmniStats Volume 3 Issue 4, October 2003

  • A survey of users of Portland, Oregon’s Intertwine path system found that 22% of bicyclists were using the paths for pleasure or exercise (compared to 97% of pedestrians) and 76% of bicyclists were using it for commuting to work or school (compared to 2% of pedestrians)

Oregon Metro, 2011

Intertwine trail use snapshot

  • Communities with more parks have significantly higher levels of bicycling and walking for transportation.

Zlot, A., and T. Schmid, 2005

Relationships among community characteristics and walking and bicycling for transportation or recreation, American Journal of Health Promotion, 19, 314-7

  • The average bicycle commuter has been commuting by bike for 8.3 years.

Moritz, W., 1997

Survey of North American bicycle commuters: Design and aggregate results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1578, 91-101

  • High school students are less likely to bike or walk to school if they are girls, in grade 12, smoke daily, are low-moderate in physical activity, or attend a rural school.

Robertson-Wilson, J., et al., 2008

Social-ecological correlates of active commuting to school among high school students, Journal of Adolescent Health, 42, 486-95

  • Paris’ automated bike-sharing system, Vélib_’, includes 20,600 bikes distributed among 1,451 stations throughout the city. In the first six months, people took the bikes on 13.4 million trips—an average of 75,000 trips per day.

Vélib’__ press release

  • The average commuting bicycle costs $687.

Moritz, W., 1997

Survey of North American bicycle commuters: Design and aggregate results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1578, 91-101

  • 89% of bicycle trips begin at a residence.

Royal, D., and D. Miller-Steiger, 2008

National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

  • On the average day when an adult rides a bicycle, he or she rides for about 40 minutes.

Barnes, G., and K. Krizek, 2005

Estimating bicycling demand, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1939, 45-51

  • From 1977-1995, the number of bicycle trips taken in the U.S. doubled.

Pucher, J., et al., 1999

Bicycling renaissance in North America?: Recent trends and alternative policies to promote bicycling, Transportation Research Part A, 33, 625-54

  • Work trips account for only 15% of all trips.

U.S. Department of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration, 2001

2001 National Household Travel Survey

  • Bicycling for non-commuting purposes generally precedes bicycling for commuting.

Sener et al., 2008

An analysis of bicyclists and bicycling characteristics: Who, why, and how much are they bicycling?

  • Bicyclists with more automobiles in their household are less likely to bicycle for any purpose. The more bicycles a cyclist owns, the more likely they are to choose to bicycle.

Sener et al., 2008

An analysis of bicyclists and bicycling characteristics: Who, why, and how much are they bicycling?

  • 30% of bike commuters use a mountain bike, 28% a road bike, 18% a hybrid, and 17% a touring bike. 35% of bike commuters own a second, bad-weather bike.

Moritz, W., 1997

Survey of North American bicycle commuters: Design and aggregate results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1578, 91-101

  • People who cycle more are generally more positive about bicycling for transportation. Only 5% of Dutch frequent cyclists have a negative opinion of cycling, compared to 29% of infrequent cyclists.

Fietsberaad, 2009

“Car and bicycle are very highly appreciated”

  • In the Netherlands, 86% of people have a positive opinion of the car, while 5% have a negative opinion; 84% of Dutch have a positive opinion of the bicycle, while 7% have a negative opinion.

Fietsberaad, 2009

“Car and bicycle are very highly appreciated”

  • Europeans bicycle an average of 188 km per year; United States residents bike only 40 km a year.

Bassett, Jr., et al., 2008

Walking, cycling, and obesity rates in Europe, North America, and Australia, Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 5, 795-814

  • In the Yukon Territory, twice as many people bike to work as in California, and three times as many as in Florida.

Pucher, J., and R. Buehler, 2006

Why Canadians cycle more than Americans: A comparative analysis of bicycling trends and policies, Transport Policy, 13, 265-79

  • In 2007, 130 million bicycles were produced worldwide, more than twice the 52 million cars produced.

Roney, J., 2008

Bicycles Pedaling into the Spotlight, Earth Policy Insititute

  • American mothers spend over an hour a day driving, on average, which adds up to almost 17 days behind the wheel per year. Moms also spend more time driving than the average parent spends dressing, bathing, and feeding a child.

Surface Transportation Policy Partnership, 1999

High Mileage Moms

  • Two-thirds of all driving trips to shuttle others around are made by women. Whether working or not, mothers with school-aged children make 20% more trips than the average woman and 21% more than the average man.

Surface Transportation Policy Partnership, 1999

High Mileage Moms

  • In a 2009 survey of Portland, Oregon cyclists, more than two-thirds said that they attempted to bike during a time of severe snowstorms. Of those who did not decide to bike, the most common reasons for not biking were concern for safety (75%) and road conditions (77%).

Maus, J., 2009

“Mayor’s office releases results of bike-specific storm survey,” BikePortland.org, March 17, 2009

  • In 2008, the average Bicycle Friendly Community had three times more bike commuters than the national average. The bike commute share of Bicycle Friendly Communities also grew 60 percent more than the national average.

Flusche, D., 2009

American Community Survey Bicycle Community Trends, 2000 to 2008, League of American Bicyclists

  • Nearly nine out of 10 bicyclists in Oregon and southwest Washington also own and drive automobiles. Car ownership level doesn’t differ between less- and more-experienced cyclists, but car usage drops significantly as cyclists become more experienced.

Inavero Institute for Service Research, 2009

Bicycling Perceptions and Experiences in Oregon and Southwest Washington, presented to the Bicycle Transportation Alliance, September 8, 2009

  • In Copenhagen, the ratio of bikes to people is 1:1.

Rohl, A., 2009

in “Summit starts with lessons from Copenhagen,” J. Maus, BikePortland.org, March 10, 2009

  • One-quarter of Copenhagen families with two or more children have a cargo bike.

Rohl, A., 2009

in “Summit starts with lessons from Copenhagen,” J. Maus, BikePortland.org, March 10, 2009

  • In Copenhagen, 54% of cyclists say they bike because it is easy and fast, 19% do it for the exercise, 7% bike for the convenience, 6% state financial reasons, and 1% bike for environmental reasons.

City of Copenhagen, 2006

Bicycle Account, 2006

  • In Portland, Oregon 7,100 daily trips or 21% of all trips on the Hawthorne Bridge over the Willamette River are made by bike. If those 7,100 trips were made by car, Portland would have to build a new bridge.

Portland Bureau of Transportation, 2009

Portland Bicycle Count Report 2009

  • Communities with larger bicycle and pedestrian staffs have higher levels of cycling.

League of American Bicyclists, 2010

“Why communities need bicycle and pedestrian program staff”

  • People who are concerned about the time it takes to bike or walk for transportation are less likely to ride a bike.

Akar, G., and K. Clifton, 2010

Influence of individual perceptions and bicycle infrastructure on decision to bike, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, 2140

Elderly [back to top]

  • More than one-fifth of Americans age 65 and older do not drive. Those who don’t drive make 65% fewer trips for social, family, and religious activities, 59% fewer shopping and restaurant trips, and 15% fewer trips to the doctor.

Bailey, L., 2004

Aging Americans: Stranded without Options

  • According to a summer 2008 survey of more than 1,000 Americans 50 and older, 94% were concerned about the recent rise in gas prices, and 15% said they had ridden a bicycle more frequently in response to high gas prices. Younger respondents (age 50-64) were more likely than older respondents (age 65 ) to say they had ridden a bike.

Skufca, L., 2008

Is the cost of gas leading Americans to use alternative transportaion?, AARP

  • In a survey of American adults 65 and older, 82% said they worry that they will be stranded and unable to get around when they can no longer drive.

Neal, M., et al., 2006

Age-related shifts in housing and transportation demand

  • More than one in five Americans 65 or older does not drive. Over half of these non-drivers stay at home because they say they have no transportation options.

Neal, M., et al., 2006

Age-related shifts in housing and transportation demand

  • In the Netherlands, adults 75 or older make a quarter of all trips by bike. In Germany, adults 75 make 7% of trips by bike. In the U.S., adults 65 or older make only 0.4% of all trips by bike.

Pucher, J., and J. Renne, 2003

Socioeconomics of Urban Travel: Evidence from the 2001 NHTS, Transportation Quarterly, 57, 49-77

  • In Germany and the Netherlands, the elderly make over half of trips by biking or walking. In America, the elderly make only 9% of trips by biking or walking.

Pucher, J., and J. Renne, 2003

Socioeconomics of Urban Travel: Evidence from the 2001 NHTS, Transportation Quarterly, 57, 49-77

  • More than half of older adults who reported an inhospitable biking, walking, and transit environment outside their homes said they would bicycle, walk, and take transit more if their streets were improved.

National Complete Streets Coalition

The Benefits of Complete Streets 3: Complete streets improve mobility for older Americans

  • Therapy bicycling programs have been shown to decrease depression in older adults.

Fitzsimmons, S., and L. Buettner

“Easy Rider wheelchair biking: A nursing-recreation therapy clinical trial for the treatment of depression”

Incentives and events [back to top]

  • According to a survey of 710 female mountain bikers, 46% said they first learned about mountain biking from a partner and 44% said a friend invited them out to ride.

Sacred Rides Mountain Bike Adventures, 2010

Women of Mountain Biking survey report

  • 43% of Denver bike sharing service, B-cycle, members said they used the bikes to replace car trips.

Denver B-cycle, 2010

Denver B-cycle finishes successful first season with 102,000 B-cycle rides

  • Bicycling comfort, an aversion to driving, a utilitarian biking culture, and short distances to destinations are key factors for high levels of transportation bicycling.

Xing, Y., et al., 2010

Factors associated with proportions and miles of bicycling for transportation and recreation in six small US cities, Transportation Research Part D, 15

  • According to a survey of Bike to Work Day participants in Washington, D.C., 17 percent said they had never bike commuted before the event, 10 percent started riding to work after the event, and 22 percent started riding more often. 

National Capital Region Transportation Planning Board, 2011

Bike to Work Day 2011

  • A survey of Australian adults found that three in five have access to a bike, but many don’t ride at all or as much as they want to due to road and safety issues. Respondents said that separated bike paths would encourage them to start riding at all or more often.

Cycling Promotion Fund, 2011

Riding a Bike for Transport: 2011 Survey Findings

  • A survey of adult Georgians found that 92% agree that encouraging bicycling is a long-term investment in a higher quality of life for their community, and more than 4 in 5 Georgians say they would ride a bike more frequently if their community had better bike facilities.

University of Georgia, 2011

2011 Statewide Survey on Bicycle Issues

  • Minneapolis-St. Paul saw a 30% increase in participation in June Bike Walk Week every year beween 2009 and 2011.

Bike Walk Twin Cities in Bike.Walk.Move.org, 2011

Infographic highlights biking, walking in Twin Cities, November 1, 2011

  • A person is 7% more likely to bike or walk to non-work activities for every 1,000 retail workers within a half mile of their home.

Chatman (2005) in Arrington, G., and R. Cervero, 2008

Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel, Transit Cooperative Research Program Report 128

  • Workers whose commutes are shortest and go through the most connected streets are the most likely to bike or walk to work.

Badland, H., et al., 2008

Travel behavior and objectively measured urban design variables: associations for adults traveling to work, Health & Place, 14, 85-95

  • Workers who are inactive are less likely to try biking or walking to work than those who are already physically active.

Merom, D., et al., 2008

Predictors of initiating and maintaining active commuting to work using transport and public health perspectives in Australia, Preventive Medicine, 47, 342-346

  • People who have flexible work schedules are more likely to bike commute than those who don’t.

Sener et al., 2008

An analysis of bicyclists and bicycling characteristics: Who, why, and how much are they bicycling?

  • 27% of Australians who bicycle commuted for the first time during a ride to work day were still commuting by bicycle five months after the event.

Rose, G., and H. Marfurt, 2007

Travel behaviour change impacts of a major ride to work day event, Transportation Research Part A, 41, 351-64

  • 38% of Washingtonians who bicycle commuted for the first time during a ride to work day commuted by bike after the event.

Rose, G., and H. Marfurt, 2007

Travel behaviour change impacts of a major ride to work day event, Transportation Research Part A, 41, 351-64

  • A £2 ($3.90) daily payment for commuting to work would double the level of cycling and reduce car demand by 5.4%.

Wardman, M., et al., 2007

Factors influencing the propensity to cycle to work, Transportation Research Part A, 41, 339-50

  • According to a survey of British bike commuters, 40% took up cycling commuting for their health, 30% started riding to save money on fuel, and only 7% stated environmental concerns as their primary motivation for biking to work.

Cycleguard, 2009

in “Health and fitness converting more cyclists,” M. Sutton, Bike Biz, June 4, 2009

  • People are more likely to bike for transportation if they have social support from family and friends.

De Bourdeaudhuij, I., et al., 2005

Environmental and psychosocial correlates of physical activity in Portuguese and Belgian adults, Public Health Nutrition, 8, 886–895

  • Most Americans say they would stop driving alone to work and seek alternate transportation when gasoline prices are at $4 or $5.

IBM Corporation, 2009

The Commuter’s Challenge: The impact of traffic congestion in the U.S., 2009 Commuter Pain Survey

  • As bicyclists become more comfortable with riding, the number and percentage of weekly trips taken by bike increase significantly.

Inavero Institute for Service Research, 2009

Bicycling Perceptions and Experiences in Oregon and Southwest Washington, presented to the Bicycle Transportation Alliance, September 8, 2009

  • Riding in “ciclovia” events is associated with more utilitarian cycling.

Gomez et al., 2005

in Pucher, J., et al., 2009, “International Review of Cycling Interventions,” Preventive Medicine

  • The prevalence of cycling is higher is areas with higher gasoline prices and less urban sprawl.

Rashad, I., 2009

“Associations of cycling with urban sprawl and the gasoline price,” American Journal of Health Promotion, 24, 27-36

  • In a 2007 survey of young professionals, 92% said they prefer to work for a company that is environmentally friendly.

Business Wire, 2007

MonsterTRAK Joins Forces with ecoAmerica to Launch GreenCareers by MonsterTRAK

  • During San Francisco’s 2010 Bike to Work Day, bicycles accounted for 75% of traffic on Market Street.

San Francisco Bicycle Coalition, 2010

“Bicycles account for 75% of Morning Traffic; Another Record-breaking Year”, 13 May 2010

Youth [back to top]

  • Sixty percent of people in England who are able to ride a bike are deterred from cycling because they feel it’s unsafe to cycle on roads. More than half said they would start riding or ride more often if there were more cycle paths.

Thornton, A., et al., 2010

Climate Change and Transport Choices, Department of Transport

  • Five percent of American children ride a bicycle on any given day.

US Department of Transportation, 2001

2001 National Household Travel Survey

  • Youths who cycle or walk to school are more likely to cycle or walk to other activities.

Sjolie, A., and F. Thuen, 2002

School journeys and leisure activities in rural and urban adolescents in Norway, Health Promotion International, 17, 21-30

  • Urban adolescents cycle or walk to regular activities more often than rural adolescents.

Sjolie, A., and F. Thuen, 2002

School journeys and leisure activities in rural and urban adolescents in Norway, Health Promotion International, 17, 21-30

  • Boys who report having many peers to hang out with locally are more likely to cycle for transportation and recreation.

Carver, A., et al., 2005

How do perceptions of local neighborhood relate to adolescents’ walking and cycling, American Journal of Health Promotion, 20, 139-47

  • 2.8% of US high school students bike to school at least 1 day per week. High schoolers who participate in physical education 1 to 4 days per week or never have an adult at home after school are more likely to bike or walk to school.

Evenson, K., et al., 2003

Statewide prevalence and correlates of walking and bicycling to school, Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 157, 887-892

  • The likelihood of children walking or biking to school is positively associated with shorter trips, male gender, higher land use mix, and presence of street trees.

Larsen, K., et al., 2008

The influence of the physical environment and sociodemographic characteristics on children’s mode of travel to and from school, American Journal of Public Health

  • Young children (ages 5-14) with mothers who commute to work in the morning are less likely to bike or walk to school.

McDonald, N., 2008

Household interactions and children’s school travel: the effect of parental work patterns on walking and biking to school, Journal of Transport Geography, 16, 324-331

  • Regular cycling or walking to school (10 trips/week) is associated with parents’ travel mode to work.

Merom, D., et al., 2006

Active commuting to school among NSW primary school children: Implications for public health, Health Place, 12, 678-87

  • A 2007 analysis of California schools showed that Safe Routes to School infrastructure improvements increased biking and walking by up to 200%.

Ornstein, M., et al., 2007

Safe Routes to School Safety and Mobility Analysis: A report to the California legislature, California Department of Transportation

  • 65.6 million people in urban areas could benefit from Safe Routes to School projects.

Watson, M., and A. Dannenberg, 2008

Investment in Safe Routes to School Projects: Public health benefits for the larger community

  • In large urban areas, 39% of land area is within 0.5 mile of a public school, and in small urban areas, 26.5% was within 0.5 mile of a public school.

Watson, M., and A. Dannenberg, 2008

Investment in Safe Routes to School Projects: Public health benefits for the larger community

  • In one study, over 90% of adolescents who perceived distance as a barrier to active commuting to school lived further than 2.5 miles from school.

Nelson, N., et al., 2008

Active commuting to school: How far is too far?, International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity

  • Bicycling is the most popular outdoor activity for American youth. 27% of kids (13.7 million individuals) ages 6 to 17 bicycled in 2010, for a total of 989 million bicycling outings (72 outings per bicyclist.)

Outdoor Foundation, 2011

Outdoor Recreation Participation Report 2011

  • Children are more likely to bike or walk to school if they live less than 800 meters (0.5 mile) away.

Timperio, A., et al., 2006

Personal, family, social, and environmental correlates of active commuting to school, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30, 45-51

  • Once children have to commute more than 0.75 km (0.47 mi) to school, the chance that they commute by biking or walking drops.

Merom, D., et al., 2006

Active commuting to school among NSW primary school children: Implications for public health, Health Place, 12, 678-87

  • 35% of Dutch adolescents cycle to school on most days, and nearly 50% bike or walk.

Bere, E., et al., 2008

Socio-demographic factors as correlates of active commuting to school in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, Preventive Medicine

  • In one generation, the percentage of children who walk or bike to school has dropped from 50% to 15%.

Safe Routes to School National Partnership, 2007

Safe Routes to School: 2007 State of the States Report

  • In rural areas, adolescents with access to a safe park get more regular physical activity and are less likely to be inactive than those without access to a safe park.

Babey, S., et al., 2008

Physical Activity Among Adolescents: When do parks matter?, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34, 35-38

  • Adolescents are more likely to bike or walk to school if they are males, Latinos, from lower-income families, public school students, from an urban areas, and living closer to school. Adolescents without an adult present after school and those whose parents know little about their whereabouts after school are also more likely to actively commute.

Babey, S., et al., 2008

Sociodemographic, family, and environmental factors associated with active commuting to school among US adolescents, Journal of Public Health Policy, 30, S203–S220

  • 12% of American children’s trips to sports activities are made by bike.

McDonald, N., 2006

in Tal, G., and S. Handy, Children’s biking for non-school purposes: Getting to soccer games in Davis, CA, Transportation Research Record, 2074, 40-45

  • Students are less likely to bike or walk to school if they have to travel along and/or cross a road with busy traffic and no lights or crossing points.

Timpero, A., et al., 2006

Personal, family, social, and environmental correlates of active commuting to school, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30, 45-51

  • Boys are more likely to bike or walk to school than girls.

McMillan, T., et al., 2006

Johnny can walk to school-Can Jane? Examining sex differences in children’s active travel to school, Children, Youth, and Environment, 16, 75-89

  • On average, boys cycle nearly 6 times as much as girls (138 miles/year versus 24 miles/year.)

National Children’s Bureau

in “What’s stopping teenage girls from riding bikes?” S. Phillips, Guardian.co.uk Bike Blog, November 17, 2009

  • More than 70 percent of all U.S. children age five to 14 ride a bicycle.

Mehan, T., et al., 2009

“Bicycle related injuries among children and adolescents in the United States,” Clinical Pediatrics, 48.2, 166-73

  • Parents are significantly more likely to let their children bike or walk to school when they believe that other adults in the neighborhood watch out for children.

McDonald, N., et al., 2010

“Influence of the social environment on children’s school travel,” Preventive Medicine, 50, S65-S68

  • Three-quarters of parents who drive their children less than 2 miles to school say they do it for convenience and to save time.

McDonald, N., and A. Aalborg, 2009

Why parents drive children to school: Implications for Safe Routes to School Programs, Journal of the American Planning Association, 75, 331-342

  • The share of U.S. children who bike or walk to school has remained stable at about 12 percent over the last 15 years.

Federal Highway Administration, 2010

in “U.S. Travel Data Show Declind in Walking and Bicycling to School Has Stabilized,” Safe Routes to School, 2010